3C/E4 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Factors such as cost, safety, appearance, environmental impact, and what will happen if the solution fails must be considered in technological design.
3C/E6 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Because of their ability to invent tools and processes, people have an enormous effect on the lives of other living things.
3C/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The human species has a major impact on other species in many ways: reducing the amount of the earth's surface available to those other species, interfering with their food sources, changing the temperature and chemical composition of their habitats, introducing foreign species into their ecosystems, and altering organisms directly through selective breeding and genetic engineering.
4B/H8 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The earth has many natural resources of great importance to human life. Some are readily renewable, some are renewable only at great cost, and some are not renewable at all.
4B/M10ab ( Grades: 6-8 ): Some material resources are very rare and some exist in great quantities. The ability to obtain and process resources depends on where they are located and the form they are in. As resources are depleted, they may become more difficult to obtain.
4B/M11a ( Grades: 6-8 ): The wasteful or unnecessary use of natural resources can limit their availability for other purposes. Restoring depleted soil, forests, or fishing grounds can be difficult and costly.
4B/M11bc ( Grades: 6-8 ): The benefits of Earth's resources—such as fresh water, air, soil, and trees—can be reduced by deliberately or inadvertently polluting them. The atmosphere, the oceans, and the land have a limited capacity to absorb and recycle waste materials. In addition, some materials take a long time to degrade. Therefore, cleaning up polluted air, water, or soil can be difficult and costly.
4B/M7 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Water evaporates from the surface of the earth, rises and cools, condenses into rain or snow, and falls again to the surface. The water falling on land collects in rivers and lakes, soil, and porous layers of rock, and much of it flows back into the oceans. The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere is a significant aspect of the weather patterns on Earth.
4B/M8 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Fresh water, limited in supply, is essential for some organisms and industrial processes. Water in rivers, lakes, and underground can be depleted or polluted, making it unavailable or unsuitable for life.
4B/P1 ( Grades: K-2 ): The temperature and amount of rain (or snow) tend to be high, low, or medium in the same months every year.
4C/E1 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Waves, wind, water, and ice shape and reshape the earth's land surface by eroding rock and soil in some areas and depositing them in other areas, sometimes in seasonal layers.
4C/M2b ( Grades: 6-8 ): The earth's surface is shaped in part by the motion of water (including ice) and wind over very long times, which acts to level mountain ranges. Rivers and glacial ice carry off soil and break down rock, eventually depositing the material in sediments or carrying it in solution to the sea.
4C/M7 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals released into the atmosphere, and intensive farming, have changed the earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Some of these changes have decreased the capacity of the environment to support some life forms.
4C/M8 ( Grades: 6-8 ): There are a variety of different land forms on the earth's surface (such as coastlines, rivers, mountains, deltas, and canyons).
5D/H2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): If a disturbance such as flood, fire, or the addition or loss of species occurs, the affected ecosystem may return to a system similar to the original one, or it may take a new direction, leading to a very different type of ecosystem. Changes in climate can produce very large changes in ecosystems.
5D/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Human beings are part of the earth's ecosystems. Human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems.
5E/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things pass through food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in a food web, some energy is stored in newly made structures but much is dissipated into the environment. Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps the process going.
7C/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): # The size and rate of growth of the human population in any location are affected by economic, political, religious, technological and environmental factors. Some of these factors, in turn, are influenced by the size and rate of growth of the population.
8B/H7 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The development of new materials and the increased use of existing materials by a growing human population have led to the removal of resources from the environment much more rapidly than they can be replaced by natural processes. Disposal of waste materials has also become a problem. Solving these problems requires systematic efforts involving both social and technological innovations.
8C/E4 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Some people try to reduce the amount of fuels they use in order to conserve resources, reduce pollution, or save money.
8C/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Industrialization brings an increased demand for and use of energy. Such usage contributes to having many more goods and services in the industrially developing nations but also leads to more rapid depletion of the earth's energy resources and to environmental risks associated with some energy resources.
8C/H5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Decisions to slow the depletion of energy resources can be made at many levels, from personal to national, and they always involve trade-offs involving economic costs and social values.
8C/M10 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Some resources are not renewable or renew very slowly. Fuels already accumulated in the earth, for instance, will become more difficult to obtain as the most readily available resources run out. How long the resources will last, however, is difficult to predict. The ultimate limit may be the prohibitive cost of obtaining them.
8C/M2 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Different ways of obtaining, transforming, and distributing energy have different environmental consequences.
NSTA National Science Education Standards
C.3.4 ( Grades: K-4 ): Humans depend on their natural and constructed environments. Humans change environments in ways that can be either beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.
D.1.6 ( Grades: 5-8 ): Water, which covers the majority of the earth's surface, circulates through the crust, oceans, and atmosphere in what is known as the "water cycle." Water evaporates from the earth's surface, rises and cools as it moves to higher elevations, condenses as rain or snow, and falls to the surface where it collects in lakes, oceans, soil, and in rocks underground.
D.3.2 ( Grades: K-4 ): Weather changes from day to day and over the seasons. Weather can be described by measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and precipitation.
F.1.7 ( Grades: 5-8 ): Natural environments may contain substances (for example, radon and lead) that are harmful to human beings. Maintaining environmental health involves establishing or monitoring quality standards related to use of soil, water, and air.
F.3.1 ( Grades: 5-8 ): Internal and external processes of the earth system cause natural hazards, events that change or destroy human and wildlife habitats, damage property, and harm or kill humans. Natural hazards include earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, volcanic eruptions, floods, storms, and even possible impacts of asteroids.
F.3.3 ( Grades: K-4 ): The supply of many resources is limited. If used, resources can be extended through recycling and decreased use.
F.4.1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Natural ecosystems provide an array of basic processes that affect humans. Those processes include maintenance of the quality of the atmosphere, generation of soils, control of the hydrologic cycle, disposal of wastes, and recycling of nutrients. Humans are changing many of these basic processes, and the changes may be detrimental to humans.
F.4.2 ( Grades: K-4 ): Changes in environments can be natural or influenced by humans. Some changes are good, some are bad, and some are neither good nor bad. Pollution is a change in the environment that can influence the health, survival, or activities of organisms, including humans.
F.6.5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Humans have a major effect on other species. For example, the influence of humans on other organisms occurs through land use--which decreases space available to other species--and pollution--which changes the chemical composition of air, soil, and water.